The constitution as adopted on November 26, 1949, contained a preamble, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules. The Indian Constitution came into force on January 26, 1950 and this date is referred to in the Constitution as the Date of its Commencement
The concept of secularism which evolved through India's freedom struggle did not connote any non-religious or anti-religious idea. It meant sarva dharma samabhav, whose substance was harmonious co-existence of various religions. In the framework of India's secularism, devotion to religion never conflicted with one's dedication to nationalism. The history of our freedom struggle bears ample testimony to this inference. Mahatma Gandhi and Swami Vivekananda were devout Hindus. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Zakir Husain were dedicated followers of Islam. Dadabhai Naoroji was a great Zoroastrian. Dr BR Ambedkar was a staunch Buddhist. Guru Nanak was one of the tallest exponents of Sikhism. Mother Teresa, who has accepted Indian citizenship, is a noble product of Christian religion. And yet, all of them professing different religions had an unflinching loyalty to the Indian Nation. For them, there was no conflict between religion and nationalism.
Before entering upon his office, the President has to make and subscribe to an oath of affirmation. In his oath the President swears: (i) to faithfully execute the office; (ii) to preserve, protect and defend the constitution and the law; and (iii) to devote himself to the service and well-being of the people of India. The oath of office to the President is administered by the Chief Justice of India and in his absence, the senior most judge of the Supreme Court available. Any other person acting as President or discharging the functions of the President also undertakes the similar oath or affirmation.
Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG): The Constitution of India (Article-148) provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG). He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department. He is the guardian of the public purse and controls the entire financial system of the country at both levels – the Centre and the State. His duty is to uphold the Constitution of India and laws of Parliament in the field of financial administration. This is the reason why Dr B R Ambedkar said that the CAG shall be the most important officer under the Constitution of India. He is one of the bulwarks of the democratic system of government in India; the others being the Supreme Court, the Election Commission and the Union Public Service Commi-ssion. The CAG is appointed by the President of India by a warrant under his hand and seal. CAG, before taking over his office, makes and subscribes before the President an oath or affirmation. CAG holds office for a period of six years or upto the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.
Under Article-1 of the Indian Constitution, the State of Jammu and Kashmir (J & K) is a constituent state of Indian Union and its territory forms a part of the territory of India. Union and its territory forms a part of the territory of India. On the other hand, Article-370 in Part XXI of the Constitution grants a special status to it. Accordingly, all the provisions of the Constitution of India do not apply to it. It also the only state in the Indian Union which has its own separate state-Constitution – the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir. The Constitution of J & K was adopted on November 17, 1957, and came into force on January 26, 1957.
Under the original Constitution of J & K (1957), the head of the state and the head of the government were designated as Sadar-i- Riyasat (President) and Wazir-i-Azam (Prime Minister) respectively. In 1965, they were redesignted as Governor and Chief Minister respectively. Also, the head of the state was to be elected by the state assembly
A 'Proclamation of Emergency' may be made by the President at any time he is satisfied that the security of India or any part thereof has been threatened by war, external aggression or armed rebellion (Article-352). It may be made even before the actual occurrence of any such disturbance, for example, when external aggression is apprehended. An 'Emergency' means the existence of a condition whereby the security of India or any part thereof is threatened by war or external aggression or armed rebellion. A state of emergency exists under the Constitution when the President makes a 'Proclamation of Emergency'. The actual occurrence of war or any armed rebellion, is not necessary to justify a 'Proclamation of Emergency' of the President. The President may make such a Proclamation if he is satisfied that there is an imminent danger of such external aggression or armed rebellion. But no such Proclamation can be made by the President unless the Union Ministers of Cabinet rank, headed by the Prime Minister, recommend to him, in writing, that such a Proclamation should be issued [Article-352(3)]