R C Dutta and Dadabhai Naoroji first cited the drain of wealth theory. Naoroji brought it into light in his book titled 'Poverty and Un-British Rule In India'. R C Dutta blamed the British policies for Indian economic ills in his book 'Economic History of India' (1901- 03).
Tilak (April) and Annie Besant & S Subramaniam Iyer (September) established Home Rule Leagues in 1916. Tilak's league was to work in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Central Provinces and Berar and Annie Besant in the rest of India.
Jalianwalla Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919): The arrest of Dr Saifuddin Kitchlu and Dr Satyapal on April 10, 1919, under the Rowlatt Act in connection with Satyagraha caused serious unrest in Punjab. A public meeting was held on April 13, 1919, Baisakhi Day, in a park called Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar where thousands of people including women and children assembled. Before the meeting could start General O'Dyer ordered indiscriminate heavy firing on the crowd and the people had no way out to escape. As a result hundreds of men, women and children were killed and more than 1200 people wounded. Later an enquiry under Hunter was held in Britain and Brigadier General Dyer was made to resign. The massacre was a turning point in Indo-British relations and inspired the people to provide more unrelenting fight for freedom. Sardar Uddham Singh, an Indian patriot from Punjab, shot down General O'Dyer in London in 1940.